Journal Paper No. J.-17972 of the Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station, Ames, IA. Project no. 3258.
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and Center for Crops Utilization Research, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.
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Accepted June 10, 1999.
Structures and properties of starches isolated from different botanical sources were investigated. Apparent and absolute amylose contents of starches were determined by measuring the iodine affinity of defatted whole starch and of fractionated and purified amylopectin. Branch chain-length distributions of amylopectins were analyzed quantitatively using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system equipped with a postcolumn enzyme reactor and a pulsed amperometric detector. Thermal and pasting properties were measured using differential scanning calorimetry and a rapid viscoanalyzer, respectively. Absolute amylose contents of most of the starches studied were lower than their apparent amylose contents. This difference correlated with the number of very long branch chains of amylopectin. Studies of amylopectin structures showed that each starch had a distinct branch chain-length distribution profile. Average degrees of polymerization (dp) of amylopectin branch chain length ranged from 18.8 for waxy rice to 30.7 for high-amylose maize VII. Compared with X-ray A-type starches, B-type starches had longer chains. A shoulder of dp 18–21 (chain length of 6.3–7.4 nm) was found in many starches; the chain length of 6.3–7.4 nm was in the proximity of the length of the amylopectin crystalline region. Starches with short average amylopectin branch chain lengths (e.g., waxy rice and sweet rice starch), with large proportions of short branch chains (dp 11–16) relative to the shoulder of dp 18–21 (e.g., wheat and barley starch), and with high starch phosphate monoester content (e.g., potato starch) displayed low gelatinization temperatures. Amylose contents and amylopectin branch chain-length distributions predominantly affected the pasting properties of starch.
© 1999 American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc.